The Republic of Turkey was founded on 29 October 1923 by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the leader of the victorious nationalists who brought the nation as we know it into being, having won a war of independence against invaders.
Built on the ruins of the Ottoman Empire, the new republic inherited a deep history, along with all the problems that can bring, especially to a people worn out by continuous wars. Atatürk looked to the West as he chose his model for a modern, developed nation, where he saw progressive and industrialised countries, while the East was decaying.
And so, over the next two decades, the republic's founders abolished the caliphate and closed religious sects and congregations. They adopted a new civil code and switched to the alphabet used in the West. Even the clothes favoured in that part of the world came into fashion, replacing traditional Eastern styles.
The education system was secularised and embraced science. It gradually brought up the literacy rate, from levels of around only 10%.
In 1934, women got the right to vote and stand in elections. Turkey was one of the first countries in the world to do this, putting a Muslim country at the forefront of such progressive change, a huge and admirable step.
Roads and railway lines, factories and industrial facilities were built as part of the effort to build a modern economy. And 100 years later, Turkey has become one of the biggest economies in the world, worth over $900bn dollars in gross domestic product by 2022.