Some broader economic factors may also hinder women's employment.
United Nations organisations are trying to encourage women empowerment and enhance women's economic role in various countries worldwide, including Arab countries.
However, a United Nations Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) report indicates high levels of economic or security difficulties in the past few years.
The report says the decline in global oil prices since 2014 is partly responsible for the fewer job opportunities, due to the consequent slump in economic growth in both the wealthy Arab oil-exporting countries and the countries that depend on their support and funding.
However, economic reasons are not the only impediments to women's economic empowerment.
The United Nations says the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) still faces pushback from a number of Arab governments. Some of this pushback is economic in nature, such as those related to equality in the rights to sign contracts and manage property.
Arab women entrepreneurs have come a long way with some leading economic institutions in vital sectors, such as banking, oil, and real estate.
The percentage of women in leadership positions in economic establishments may not be that high, or meet equality ambitions yet, or at the very least represent appropriate empowerment for working women. Still, current developments reinforce optimism in the future.
In many institutions, women have inherited their positions from their fathers or husbands. This confirms that the social environment has a strong influence on the administrative and economic role of women.
In small and medium-sized enterprises that do not employ a large number of workers, women have proved to play an essential role, after Arab countries, especially in the Gulf, encouraged the establishment of such enterprises and provided funding support.
These companies operate across various sectors, and women have emerged as active players in their establishment, especially in the food and beverage, leisure and tourism, beauty, and clothing and household manufacturing sectors.
Many young girls are actively enrolling in the culinary arts or fashion design, which confirms an important turning point in the professional orientations of Arab women during the past years, and their agile adaptation to economic changes and labour market needs.
Women's participation in the labour market has become a reality in the Arab world and only seems to be growing.
Economic independence brings more freedom
Women now have more freedom and economic independence after receiving education that qualified them to join public or private sector institutions or establish their own independent enterprises.
Needless to say, women's economic independence gives them more freedom in their social choices, enhances their role as wives and mothers, and allows them to become independent.