Quantum computing has recently introduced itself as an interdisciplinary field that encompasses aspects of computer science, physics, and mathematics and uses quantum mechanics to solve complex problems much more quickly than classical computers.
But what is quantum?
It is the smallest unit in a phenomenon, and its plural is quanta. For example, a quantum in electricity is the electron. The phrase is originally Latin; it means “quantity.”
Quantum computing is based on quantum theory, which seeks to explain phenomena according to the behaviours of their smallest constituent unit.
The theory was founded by the German physicists Max Planck and Albert Einstein and the Danish physicist Niels Bohr, who all won Nobel Prizes in Physics in 1918, 1921, and 1922, although Planck was the first to introduce the theory in 1900.
Max Planck originated the quantum theory but did you know he was also a gifted musician? Beyond his contributions to some of the most fundamental theories of 20th-century physics, Planck was dedicated to international research collaboration.
Learn more: https://t.co/7UXxtTNWLw pic.twitter.com/P4ZtY06wRw— The Nobel Prize (@NobelPrize) April 23, 2023
From quantum theory stemmed quantum physics and quantum mechanics that study relevant phenomena at the level of the smaller units that make up these phenomena.
Quantum computing is based on quantum mechanics; the former, in its speedy data processing, is based on three principles embedded in the latter: superposition, interference, and entanglement.
These principles extend to the smallest unit of data processed by a quantum computer, the qubit, which is the analogue of the bit that is handled by a classical computer.
Superposition means that the value of a qubit can be one or zero or one and zero together, while a bit can only carry a value of one or zero.
Interference determines the state of the qubit to affect a specific result during the measurement, and this is where quantum computing excels. Entanglement is when two quantum systems become intertwined.
While quantum computing is still under development, it is a major paradigm leap in computing capabilities, offering promise in sectors such as pharmaceuticals, healthcare, manufacturing, cybersecurity, and financial services.
According to Quantum Insider, the industry-specific bulletin, more than 600 companies, 30 government laboratories and government agencies are developing this promising technology.